Section 1.2 Methodology - How the Study Was Carried Out
1. The survey did not request any personal information about those making the allegations, other than age and gender.
2. The study website employed multiple levels of security to ensure that the public could not locate the site or access the questions and answers. The identification name and password were sent directly to each bishop or major superior so tha the or his staff could access the website.
3. Although we worded the definitions carefully to ensure that those filling out the questionnaires would do so in a uniform manner, in a study of this type, it is impossible to create an infallible operational definition with criteria so specific that everyone supplying the information would do so in exactly the same way. Therefore, some degree of variance in the responses is inevitable.
4. For instance, California law prohibits the disclosure of any identifying information related to sexual behavior. As a result, we worked out complicated procedures whereby identifying information (which was used only to allow us to identify priests who had been moved from one diocese to another) was encrypted prior to being sent to the study headquarters so that California respondents did not transmit any identifying information.
Section 2.1 Estimates of the Prevalance of Sexual Abuse of Youths under 18 in the United States
1. David Finkelhor et al., “Sexual Abuse in a National Survey of Adult Men and Women: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Risk Factors.” Child Abuse & Neglect 14 (1990): 20-21.
2. Harriet L. MacMillan and Jan E. Fleming, “Prevalence of Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in the Community.” Journal of the American Medical Association 278 (1997): 131-135.
3. K. Moore, K. Nord, and J. Peterson, “Nonvoluntary Sexual Activity Among Adolescents.” Family Planning Perspectives 21 (1989): 110-114.
4. Sue Boney-McCoy and David Finkelhor, “Psychosocial Sequelae of Violent Victimization in a National Youth Sample.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63 (Oct. 1995): 726-736.
5. Lisa Jones and David Finkelhor. “Explanations for the Decline in Child Sexual Abuse Cases.” OJJDP Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2004).
6. Lisa M. Jones and David Finkelhor, “The Decline in Child Sexual Abuse Cases.” OJJDP Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2001); Lisa M.Jones, David Finkelhor, and Kathy Kopiec. “Why is sexual abuse declining? A survey of state child protection administrators.” Child Abuse & Neglect 25 (2001): 1139–1158.
7. Rennison, C.M. “Criminal Victimization 2000: Changes 1999–2000 with Trends 1993–2000.” Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S.Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2001.
8. Jones, 2004.
9. Harrison, P.A., Fulkerson, J.A., and Beebe, T.J. “Multiple substance use among adolescent physical and sexual abuse victims.” Child Abuse & Neglect 21 (1997): 529–539.
10. Minnesota Department of Children, Families & Learning, Minnesota Department of Human Services. Minnesota Student Survey: Key Trends Through 2001. Roseville, MN: Minnesota Department of Children, Families & Learning, 2001.
11. David Finkelhor and Richard K. Ormrod, “Factors in the Underreporting of Crimes Against Juveniles” Child Maltreatment 6 (2001): 219-230.
Section 2.2 Summary Results: Prevalence of Sexual Abuse of Youths under 18 by Catholic Priests and Deacons
1. Bryan T. Froehle, “Numbers of Priests in the United States 1960 – 1996” (working Paper, Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate, Georgetown University, Washington DC, 1997).
Section 2.3 Detailed Data on Prevalence of Sexual Abuse of Youths under 18 by Catholic Priests
1. Surveys were included in the study for 181 priests who were reported by their dioceses to have had allegations, butwhose clerical status was not reported. The total number of individual priests and deacons includes the diocesan priests, the religious priests and those who status was not identified.
Section 3.1 Introduction to the Problem of Child Sexual Abuse by Adult Men
1. Robert A. Knight & Raymond A. Prentky, "Classifying Sexual Offenders: The Development and Corroboration of Taxonomic Models." in Handbook of Sexual Assault: Issues, Theories, and Treatment of the Offender, 3rd ed., ed. William L. Marshall (New York: Plenum Press, 1990), 23-52; and Barbara K. Schwartz, "Characteristics and Typologies of Sex Offenders." in The Sex Offender: Corrections, Treatment and Legal Practice, 2nd ed., ed. Barbara K. Schwartz and Henry R. Cellini (New Jersey: Civic Research Institute, Inc, 1995)
2. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1999).
3. Martin P. Kafka, "Sexual Molesters of Adolescents, Ephebophilia, and Catholic Clergy: A Review and Synthesis,” in Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church: Scientific and Legal Perspectives, ed. R. Karl Hanson, Friedemann Pfäfflin, and Manfred Lütz (Vatican: Libreria Editrico Vaticana, 2004).
4. American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV.
5. A. Nicholas Groth, William F. Hobson, and Thomas G. Gary, “The Child Molester: Clinical Observations,” in Social Work and Child Sexual Abuse, ed. Jon R. Conte and David A. Shore (New York: Haworth, 1982).
6. Groth, Hobson, and Gary; David Finkelhor, Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research, (New York: The Free Press, 1984).
7. Lenore M. Simon, Bruce Sales, Alfred Kaszniak, and Marvin Kahn, “Characteristics of Child Molesters: Implications for the Fixated-Regressed Dichotomy,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 7 (2, 1992): 211-225.
8. Simon, 211-225.
9. Robert J. Camargo, "Factor, Cluster, and Discriminant Analyses of Data on Sexually Active Clergy: The Molesters of Youth Identified," American Journal of Forensic Psychology 15 (2, 1997): 5-24.
10. Thomas W. Haywood et al., "Psychological Aspects of Sexual Functioning Among Cleric and Non-cleric Alleged Sex Offenders," Child Abuse & Neglect 20 (6, 1996): 527-536; and R. Langevin, S. Curnoe, and J. Bain, "A Study of Clerics Who Commit Sexual Offenses: Are They Different From Other Sex Offenders?" Child Abuse & Neglect 24 (4, 2000): 535-545.
11. Calvin S.L. Fones et al., "The Sexual Struggles of 23 Clergymen: A Follow-up study. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 25 (1999): 183-195; Richard Irons and Mark Laaser, "The Abduction of Fidelity: Sexual Exploitation by Clergy- Experience with Inpatient Assessment." Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 1 (2, 1994): 119-129; and Thomas G. Plante, "Catholic Priests Who Sexually Abuse Minors: Why Do We Hear So Much Yet Know So Little?" Pastoral Psychology 44 (5, 1996): 305-310.
12. Mary F. Ruzicka, "Predictor Variables of Clergy Pedophiles," Psychological Reports 80 (1997): 589-590.
13. Eugene C. Kennedy, Victor J. Heckler, and Frank J. Kobler, "Clinical Assessment of a Profession: Roman Catholic Clergymen," Journal of Clinical Psychology 33 (1, 1977): 120-128; and Thomas P. Doyle, "Roman Catholic Clericalism, Religious Duress, and Clergy Sexual Abuse," Pastoral Psychology 51(3, 2003): 189-231.
Section 3.4 Priests with Behavioral Problems
1. Lisa J. Cohen et al. “Personality Impairment in Male
Pedophiles,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63 (10, 2002): 912-919
2. Peter J. Fagan, Thomas N. Wise, Chester W. Schmidt Jr., and Fred S. Berlin. “Pedophilia,” Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (19, 2002): 2458-2465; and Nancy C. Raymond, Eli Coleman, Fred Ohlerking, Gary A. Christenson, and Michael Miner. “Psychiatric Comorbidity in Pedophilic Sex Offenders,” American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (5, 1999): 786-788.
3. Stephen H. Allnutt, John M.W. Bradford, David M. Greenberg, and Susan Curry. “Co-morbidity of Alcoholism and the Paraphilias,” Journal of Forensic Sciences 41 (2, 1996): 234-239.
4. Martin P. Kafka, "Sexual Molesters of Adolescents, Ephebophilia, and Catholic Clergy: A Review and Synthesis,” in Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church: Scientific and Legal Perspectives, ed. R. Karl Hanson, Friedemann Pfäfflin, and Manfred Lütz (Vatican: Libreria Editrico Vaticana, 2004).
Section 3.5 Priests and Deacons and the Allegations
1. Dean G. Kilpatrick, Benjamin E. Saunders, and Daniel W. Smith. Youth Victimization: Prevalence and Implications. NIJ Research in Brief. (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2003), 1.
2. Kilpatrick, 7.
3. Patrick A. Langan and Caroline Wolf Harlow, Child Rape Victims, 1992, (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1992, Washington, D.C.), 1.
4. Langan., 2.
5. Howard N. Snyder, Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics, NIBRS Statistical Report, (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000), 2.
6. Snyder, 2.
7. Langan, 2.
Section 3.7 Criminal Prosecutions and Penalties
1. David Finkelhor and Lisa M. Jones. “Explanations for the Decline In Child Sexual Abuse Cases,” ODJJP Bulletin, (Washington, DC: OJJDP, January 2004): 11.
2. Howard N. Snyder. Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics, (Washington, DC: U.S Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2000), 1.
3. Snyder, 12.
4. Snyder, 1.
5. Snyder, 1.
6. Snyder, 11.
7. Snyder, 13.
8. Snyder, 13.
Section 4.1 Introduction to Incidents and Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse
1. David Finkelhor, Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research (New York: The Free Press, 1984).
2. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV TR (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
3. Douglas W. Pryor, Unspeakable Acts: Why Men Sexually Abuse Children (New York, NY: New York University Press, 1996).
4. Greshan M. Sykes and David Matza, “Techniques of
neutralization: A theory of delinquency,” American Sociological Review, 22 (1957):664-670.
Section 4.3 Characteristics of Children Who Alleged Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests
1. Rebecca Bolen and Maria Scannapieco, “Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse: A Corrective Metanalysis” Social Service Review (1999): 281.
2. Bolen and Scannapieco.
Section 4.4 Characteristics of Acts of Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests
1. A very substantial number of surveys recorded sexual acts without giving any further information about them.
Section 5.1 Introduction to the Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse
1. For a comprehensive review of the literature on disclosure of childhood sexual abuse, see Paine, M.L. and Hansen D.J. (2002) Factors influencing children to self-disclose sexual abuse. Clinical Psychology Review. 22: 271-295.
2. Roesler, T.A., & Weisssmann-Wind, T.A. "Telling the Secret: Adult Women Describe Their Disclosures of Incest," Journal of Interpersonal Violence 9 (3, 1994): 327-338.
3. Arata, C M. "To Tell or Not to Tell: Current Functioning of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors who Disclosed Their Victimization," Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children 3 (1, 1998): 63-71.
4. Lawson, L., & Chaffin, M. "False Negatives in Sexual Abuse Disclosure Interviews: Incidence and Influence of Caretaker's Belief in Abuse in Cases of Accidental Abuse Discovery by Diagnosis of STD," Journal of Interpersonal Violence 7 (4, 1992): 532-542.
5. Lamb, S., & Edgar-Smith, S. "Aspects of Disclosure: Mediators of Outcome of Childhood Sexual Abuse," Journal of Interpersonal Violence 9 (3, 1994): 307-326.
6. Smith, D.W., Letourneau, E.J., & Saunders, B.E. "Delay in Disclosure of Childhood Rape: Results From a National Survey," Child Abuse & Neglect 24 (2, 2000): 273-287.
7. Sudman & Bradburn, (1973), as cited in Schneider, Anne L. & Sumi, David. “Patterns of Forgetting and Telescoping.” Criminology. Vol. 19, No. 3. (November 1981): p. 401.
8. Schneider et al., (1978); NRC, (1976), as cited in Schneider, Anne L. & Sumi, David. “Patterns of Forgetting and Telescoping.” Criminology. Vol. 19, No. 3. (November 1981): p. 401. This article discusses telescoping patterns as well as the Portland Forward Records Check.
9. Sudman & Bradburn (1974), as cited in Gottfredson, Michael R. & Hindelang, Michael J. “A Consideration of Telescoping and Memory Decay Biases in Victimization Surveys.” Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 5. (1977): p. 206. This article describes characteristics and tendencies of telescoping commonly found in social science research.
10. Neter & Waksberg, (1964), as cited in Gottfredson, Michael R. & Hindelang, Michael J. “A Consideration of Telescoping and Memory Decay Biases in Victimization Surveys.” Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 5. (1977): p. 206. This article describes characteristics and tendencies of telescoping commonly found in social science research.
11. Schneider et al., (1978); NRC, (1976), as cited in Schneider, Anne L. & Sumi, David. “Patterns of Forgetting and Telescoping.” Criminology. Vol. 19, No. 3. (November 1981): p. 409. This article discusses telescoping patterns as well as the Portland Forward Records Check.
12. Skogan, (1975), as cited in Levine, James P. “The Potential for Crime Overreporting in Criminal Victimization Surveys.” Criminology. Vol. 14, No. 3. (November 1976): p. 318; Schneider et al., (1978), as cited in Schneider, Anne L. & Sumi, David. “Patterns of Forgetting and Telescoping.” Criminology. Vol. 19, No. 3. (November 1981): p. 402.
13. Devoe, E.R., & Coulborn-Faller, K. "The Characteristics of Disclosure Among Children who May Have Been Sexually Abused," Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children 4 (3, 1999): 217-227; Reinhart, M.A. "Sexually Abused Boys," Child Abuse & Neglect 11 (2, 1987): 229-235; and Sorenson, T., & Snow, B. "How Children Tell: The Process of Disclosure in Child Sexual Abuse," Child Welfare 70 (1, 1991)[.]
14. Devoe & Coulborn-Faller.
15. Sorenson and Snow, 4.
16. Lawson and Chaffin.
17. Bradley, A.R., & Wood, J.M. "How Do Children Tell? The Disclosure Process in Child Sexual Abuse," Child Abuse & Neglect 20 (9, 1996): 881-891[.]
18. Summit, R.C. "The Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome," Child Abuse & Neglect 7 (2, 1983): 177-193.
19. Arata, p# [sic]; Elisabeth Kahl, Desmond K. Runyan, and Doren D. Fredrickson, “Predictors of Disclosure During Medical Evaluations for Suspected Sexual Abuse,” Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 6 (1, 2003): 133-142; Rochelle F. Hanson, Heidi S. Saunders, Benjamin E. Saunders, Dean G. Kilpatrick, and Connie Best, “Factors Related to the Reporting of Childhood Rape,” Child Abuse & Neglect 23 (6, 1999): 559-569; Smith Letourneau and Saunders, p# [sic]; and Wyatt, G.E., & Newcomb, M.D. "Internal and External Mediators of Women's Sexual Abuse in Childhood," Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 58 (6, 1990): 758-767.
21. Goodman-Brown, T.B., Edelstein, R.S., & Goodman, G.S. "Why Children Tell: A Model of Children's Disclosure of Sexual Abuse," Child Abuse & Neglect 27 (5, 2003): 525-540.
22. Wyatt & Newcom.
24. Gries, L.T., Goh, D.S., & Cavanaugh, J. "Factors Associated With Disclosure During Child Sexual Abuse Assessment," Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 5 (3, 1996): 1-20.
26. Hanson, 566[.]
27. Lamb & Edgar Smith, 321.
28. Campis, L.B., Hebden-Curtis, J., & DeMaso, D.R. "Developmental Differences in Detection and Disclosure of Sexual Abuse," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 32 (5, 1993): 920-924.
29. Keary, K., & Fitzpatrick, C. "Children's Disclosure of Sexual Abuse During Formal Investigation," Child Abuse & Neglect 18 (7, 1994): 543-548.
30. Dipietro 2003. 140[.]
31. Sorenson & Snow.
32. Berliner, L., & Conte, J.R. "The Effects of Disclosure and Intervention On Sexually Abused Children," Child Abuse & Neglect 19 (3, 1995): 371-384.
33. Roesler & Weissmann-Wind.
34. Walrath, C., Ybarra, M., & Holden, E.W. "Children With Reported Histories of Sexual Abuse: Utilizing Multiple Perspectives to Understand Clinical and Psychosocial Profiles," Child Abuse & Neglect 27 (5, 2003): 509-524.
36. Paine and Hansen[.]
Section 5.4 Sex Offender Treatment
1. Organic, or medical, treatments for sexual offenders surfaced in the 1940s. These treatment approaches are not discussed at length here because they have rarely been used for clergy abusers. The first hormonal treatment in the 1940s was an estrogen called [name not provided in original], which proved to be fairly successful at reducing deviant sexual behavior. Despite its benefits, it was not widely used because of its side effects which included vomiting, nausea and feminization. The idea that sexual offending was a medical problem continued through the 1950s and the 1960s, with the introduction of medical treatments such as medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), which is still used today with “chemical castration”(more commonly referred to as Depo Provera).
2. It was Eysenck’s criticism of traditional psychotherapy that facilitated the move towards behavioral therapy as the preferred form of psychological treatment (Marshall et al, 1999).
3. B.F. Skinner. Science and Human Behavior (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1953).
4. R. McGuire and M. Vallance. “Aversion Therapy by Electric Shock: A Simple Technique,” British Medical Journal 2 (1964): 594-597.
5. John N. Marquis, “Orgasmic Reconditioning: Changing Sexual Object Choice Through Controlling Masturbation Fantasies,” Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 1(1970): 263-271.
6. John Bancroft. “The Application of Psychophysiological Measures to the Assessment and Modification of Sexual Behavior,” Behavior Research and Therapy 9 (1971):119-130.
7. Gene G. Abel. “Behavioral Treatment of Child Molesters,” in Eating, Sleeping, and Sex: Perspectives in Behavioral Medicine, ed. Albert J. Stunkard and Andrew Baum (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989): 223-242.
8. Pithers note[.]
9. William L. Marshall, “Assessment, Treatment, and Theorizing about Sex Offenders: Developments During the Past Twenty Years and Future Directions,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 23(1996):162-199.
10. [Note 10 is missing from the report.]